“We can make classrooms good places for learning for everybody
without jeopardizing a child’s future.”
– President Barack Obama
My Brother’s Keeper Initiative
Discipline Disparities Series – Briefing Papers
The Discipline Disparities Research to Practice Collaborative, within a national context of troubling disparities and promising solutions, has used information from stakeholder groups, as well as knowledge of the current status of research in the field, to craft this series of informational briefs and supplementary research papers with targeted recommendations customized for different audiences.
Click on the links and thumbnail images provided below to view all Briefing Papers.
- The Problem of Discipline Disparities
- Consequences of Discipline Disparities for Youth
- Summary of Findings and Recommendations
Carter, P., Fine, M., & Russell, S., (2014). Discipline Disparities Series: Overview. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Available at http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
- Principles and Programs to Reduce Disparities in School Discipline
- The Context of Disparities
- Equity-Oriented Prevention Practices
- Equity-Oriented Intervention and Conflict Resolution
Gregory, A., Bell, J., & Pollock, M., (2014). How educators can eradicate disparities in school discipline: A briefing paper on school-based interventions. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Available at http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
- School Removal: Too Often for Minor Rule-Breaking
- Excessive Exclusion Harms Some Groups More Than Others
- Harm is Far More Extensive and Expensive than Most Realize
- School Factors Contribute to Disparities
- Effective and Promising Alternatives to Exclusionary Discipline
- Federal and State Policy Recommendations
Losen, D., Hewitt, D., & Toldson, I., (2014). Eliminating excessive and unfair exclusionary discipline in schools: Policy recommendations for reducing disparities. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Available at http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
- What We Have Learned: Key New Findings
- Schools Have The Power to Change Their Rates of Exclusion
- Consequences of Discipline Disparities & Incarceration for Youth
- Promising Solutions and Interventions
- Future Research Needs
Skiba, R. J., Arredondo, M. I., & Rausch, M.K., (2014). New and developing research on disparities in discipline. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Available at http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
- Why is It So Difficult to Face Race Issues?
- How Segregation and Social Boundaries Perpetuate Sterotypes
- Race Still Matters: How Old Patterns Continue Today
- What Should We Do? Bringing Race into Conversations about Disparities
- Looking to the Data, Facilitating Discussion, and Crafting Interventions
Carter, P., Skiba, R. J., Arredondo, M. I., & Pollock, M., (2014). You Can’t Fix What You Don’t look At: Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Available at http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
The following Supplementary Papers are designed to help address many commonly held beliefs about discipline disparities. The Supplementary Papers include:
ARE BLACK KIDS WORSE? MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT RACIAL DIFFERENCE IN BEHAVIOR
by Russell J. Skiba and Natasha S. Williams
This paper is a review of the evidence on the degree to which racial disparities in school discipline are due to more severe or serious behavior among Black students.
CAN “DE-BIASING” STRATEGIES HELP TO REDUCE RACIAL DISPARITIES IN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE?: SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE
by Johanna Wald
A review of the evidence on the degree to which implicit bias – the subtle and often unconscious beliefs and stereotypes concerning race and difference – may contribute to disparities in school discipline.
DISCIPLINE DISPARITIES: MYTHS VS. FACTS
This document lists many myths about discipline disparities and the evidence-based facts that call these commonly held beliefs into question.